An example of when one media text references another can be seen in the Simpsons' clip below.
The show is of course the animated cartoon of the simpsons family but sequence is a reference to the Indiana Jones films. This flatters the audience with a shared or "in-joke"
The reference may quite small or subtle but the audience will understand the connotation (connected meaning).
This example of the opening titles for "Everyone Loves Raymond" uses the sound effect from the film "Jaws" and the famous camera technique (Zido) to focus our attention on the fact that Raymond's overbearing mother is about to invite herself into his house. The overly dramatic use of a reference to his mother and a horror film provokes a humorous response from the audience.